Twisted features a decorator named inlineCallbacks which allows you to work with deferreds without writing callback functions.

This is done by writing your code as generators, which yield deferreds instead of attaching callbacks.

Consider the following function written in the traditional deferred style:

using inlineCallbacks, we can write this as:

from twisted.internet.defer import inlineCallbacks

Instead of calling addCallback on the deferred returned by redis.Connection, we yield it. this causes Twisted to return the deferred‘s result to us.

Though the inlineCallbacks looks like synchronous code, which blocks while waiting for the request to finish, each yield statement allows other code to run while waiting for the deferred being yielded to fire.

inlineCallbacks become even more powerful when dealing with complex control flow and error handling.


txredis is a non-blocking client for the redis database, written in Python. It uses twisted for the asynchronous communication with redis.


Now to check if txredis is properly installed or not goto python prompt and import txredis :

Example :

Using redis-cli, add list of user’s in redis-server with hmset :

hmset, set key to value within hash name for each corresponding key and value from the mapping dict.

Now, using python twisted get user’s :

Above code do connection with redis-server.

Here, rediscreator.connectTCP return defer and register appropriate method in addCallback, addErrback

Here, define callback function onRedisConnect and errRedisConnect.

Here, hget return the value of key within the hase name and return defer

Here, define callback function onSuccess and onFailur and log the appropriate result.

It give output 123, it is correspond to user abc


WebRTC provides Real-Time Communications directly from better web browsers and devices without requiring plug-ins such as Adobe Flash nor Silverlight.

FreeSWITCH is a WebRTC gateway because it’s able to accept encrypted media from browsers, convert it, and exchange it with other communication networks  that use different codecs and encryptions, for example, PSTN, mobile carriers, legacy systems, and others. FreeSWITCH can be a gateway between your SIP network and applications and billions of browsers on desktops, tablets, and smartphones.

Configuration :

Look for the following in sofia profile and uncomment them:

Clients :

How it works :

By default, Sofia will listen on port 7443 for WSS clients. You may want to change this port if you need your clients to traverse very restrictive firewalls. Edit /usr/local/freeswitch/conf/sip-profiles/internal.xml and change the “wss-binding” value to 443. This number, 443, is the HTTPS (SSL) port, and is almost universally open in all firewalls.Remember that if you use port 443 for WSS, you cannot use that same port for HTTPS, so you will need to deploy your secure web server on another machine.

Example :

SIP signaling in JavaScript with SIP.js (WebRTC client)

Let’s carry out the most basic interaction with a web browser audio/video through WebRTC. We’ll start using SIP.js.

A web page will display a click-to-call button, and anyone can click. That call will be answered by our company’s PBX and routed to our employee extension (1000). Our employee will wait on a browser with the “answer” web page open, and will automatically be connected to the incoming call.

call.html :

call.js :

answer.html :

answer.js :

How it works :

Our employee (the callee, or the person who will answer the call) will sit tight with the answer.html web page open on their browser.

Our customer (the caller, or the person who initiates the communication) will visit the call.html webpage and then click on the Start Call button. This clicking will activate the JavaScript that creates the communication session using the invite method of the user agent, passing as an argument the SIP address of our employee.

use this to see if ws and wss work :

How Implement Multiservice in Twisted.

Multiservice module is service collection provided by twisted, which is useful for creating a new service and combines with two or more existing services.

The major tools that manages Twisted application is a command line utility called twistd. twistd is a cross-platform, and is the recommended tool for running twisted applications.

The core component of the Twisted Application infrastructure is the

object. which represents your application. Application acts as a container of any “Services” that your application provides. This will be done through Services.

Services manages application that can be started and stopped. In Application object can contain many services, or can even hierarchies of Services using “Multiservice” or your own custom IServiceCollection implementations.

Multiservice Implementaion:

To use multiserivce, which implements IService. For this, import internet and service module.


Example :

To run, Save above code in a file as serviceexample.tac . Here, “tac ” file is regular python file. Twisted application infrastructure, protocol implementations live in a module, services, using those protocols are registered in a Twisted Application Configuration(TAC) file and the reactor and configuration are managed by an external utility.

Here, I use multiservice functionality from service. agentservice create object of multiservice. Then add services using add service method. In service, you can add web servers, FTP servers and SSH clients. After this, set application name and pass application to serviceparent method.

now, add service on port 8082 as :

add another service same as above on port 8083 as:

To run serviceexample.tac file using twistd program, use command twistd -y serviceexample.tac -n. After this, open browser and enter url localhost:8082 and localhost:8083. You can see result on web page and both TCP servers are active.

Compile C program using gcc in Linux

“This post explains about using gcc to compile C program on Linux”

Compile  C program using gcc:

  • What is a compiler:

Compiler is just like translator between programing language and machine language. It converts source written in programing language to executable instructions file for computer. For different programing languages different compilers are available. Compilers differs from operating system to operating system.

  • Open text editor:

Compiling C program start with a text editor to write our C program like VI . It is generally inbuilt in Linux operating systems. By opening terminal in our system we start from there.screenshot-from-2016-12-05-13-14-11





  • Write code:

In terminal type: vi sample.c  and Enter key. Then we enter in to vi text editor with our filename given. Now type a or i key to go in to insert mode. Then type our C program in it. After typing C program press Esc key,colon(:),w,q and Enter key  respectively to save and exit from VI. Here is figure showing source code.


  • Compile using gcc command:

Now we are in terminal again.Here we type ls command to see our saved file in the list. Then type gcc sample.c -o sample and enter key. Now the gcc compiler compiles our C file and gives the output as filename we given that is executable. screenshot-from-2016-12-05-13-20-29

  • Execute output file:

If there are any mistakes or errors in the program the compiler gives warnings and error messages with line number to find out them easily, after correcting them compile once again. If it compiles successfully it gives executable file.  To check that file we use ls command and see if it is. If it is, now type ./sample in terminal to execute it. we see the result on terminal.screenshot-from-2016-12-05-13-22-54

Actually in compiling process preprocessor adds the necessary files those are included in C libraries. That we are listed in first of our program like <stdio.h> and some other files also generated by compiler . One of  those file is object file.

Email template

Coding HTML for email can be tough. If you included video, flash, javascript or image chances it won’t show up you wanted it to.

You may have had some issues with your in email clients like Gmail or Apple Mail and Outlook.

Some comman problems are :-

  • Some email client not supported all CSS
  • Syntax improperly in tables or missing tags
  • Fonts are not displaying correctly

Troubleshoot your problem :-

If you’re having issues with columns, or rows not appearing in a table, add a border to the table to identify problems and better visualize the table structure.

If you’re seeing centered text when you prefer it left-aligned, make sure you’ve included properties like valign and align in <td> cells and <p> tags.

You may have some issues with your HTML emails looking great in email clients like Gmail or Apple Mail but rendering poorly in Outlook.

Outlook does not support many features :-

  • Animated GIF.
  • Background Images.
  • Padding for <div>, <p>, and <a> tags. Outlook ignores it. Use hspace or vspace attributes on images or tables to format your content.
  • Width for <div> and <p> tags. Outlook ignores it. Use hspace or vspace attributes on images or tables to format your content.

Email Client CSS Support:-

Open below link and check which CSS support in browser, desktop and mobile in various email client’s like outlook, yahoo, gmail.

Web-based call control with mod_httapi

The mod_httapi module was built to allow you to make your call control and IVRs dynamic. With it you can generate custom IVRs based on user input. Freeswitch mod_httapi is a simple HTTP POST operation to send various bits of information to a web application for restful way to control freeswitch call flows.

This module provides an HTTP based Telephony API using a standard FreeSWITCH application interface as well as a cached http file format interface.

HTTAPI syntax :-

mod_httapi configuration file :-

The mod_httapi configuration file is found in conf/autoload_configs and is named httapi.conf.xml . It contains several settings parameters as well as a profiles section. The example configuration contains a default HTTAPI profile or you may create your own profiles.

Inside the profile tag you will notice a number of param entries. These control things such as default settings for various work actions, permissions control (see the following sections), and the default URL to use for HTTP requests.

Example :-

Example :-

You don’t need to answer the call in the dialplan before calling into httapi Both extensions below will make httapi requests to my application:

Below example call from web :-

In above example if call is successfully bridge than it give response like :

Permissions :-
With all the control that you have in httapi , sometimes it becomes necessary to little bit with permissions on things such as variables that shouldn’t be changed, or applications and APIs that you don’t want to execute. Permissions tag you’ll find many different permissions that you can enable, with even more fine-grained control over certain aspects of some of them.

Reference link :-

Asynchronous DB Operations in Twisted

Twisted is an asynchronous networking framework. Other Database API Implementations have blocking interfaces.

For this reason, twisted.enterprise.adbapi was created. It is a non-blocking interface,which allows you to access a number of different RDBMSes.

General Method to access DB API.

1 ) Create a Connection with db.

2) create a cursor.

3) do a query.

Cursor blocks to response in asynchronous framework. Those delays are unacceptable when using an asynchronous framework such as Twisted.
To Overcome blocking interface, twisted provides asynchronous wrapper for db module such as twisted.enterprise.adbapi

Database Connection using adbapi API.

To use adbapi, we import dependencies as below

1) Connect Database using adbapi.ConnectionPool

Here, We do not need to import dbmodule directly.
dbmodule.connect are passed as extra arguments to adbapi.ConnectionPool’s Constructor.

2) Run Database Query

Here, I used ‘%s’ paramstyle for mysql. if you use another database module, you need to use compatible paramstyle. for more, use DB-API specification.

Twisted doesn’t attempt to offer any sort of magic parameter munging – runQuery(query,params,…) maps directly onto cursor.execute(query,params,…).

This query returns Deferred, which allows arbitrary callbacks to be called upon completion (or failure).

Demo : Select, Insert and Update query in Database.

Here, I have used MySQLdb api, agentdata as a database name, root as a user, 123456 as a password.
Also, I have created select, insert and update query for select, insert and update operation respectively.
runQuery method returns deferred. For this, add callback and error back to handle success and failure respectively.

Google Apps Script

What is Google Apps Script?

Google Apps Script (GAS) is a JavaScript based language to script/automate/customize Google Apps (Gsuite products). Google Apps for work has recently changed it’s name to GSuite. The list products is ever increasing, right now there are around 12 Gsuite products. Google Apps Script can be used to script most of these product.

Some interesting stuff you can do with GAS are

  1. Send automated email when Google form is submitted
  2. Finding email with bigger attachment in your gmail account.
  3. Writing add-ons to google docs and sheets

And many more. Google Apps Script offers full blown API to deal all the GSuite products. Unlike traditional languages GAS gets written and executed on google servers. You don’t have to download any thing or go through the pains of setting up development environment.  In this tutorial we will see how to write your first Google Apps Script program.

hello world using google apps script

Visit . The interface looks like as shown below.

google app script ide

Start putting together the following program.

What this program does is

  1. Create google document called ‘Hello World’.
  2. Add some text to newly created document.
  3. Get the email addressed of currently logged in user (you).
  4. Extract URL/Link for the created document.
  5. Mail it to the email address.

Now, you can save the script using Save option from File item. Your code file gets saved to your google drive. Later on you can always go back to google drive and open this script to make changes.

That’s it now, all you need to do is run this script either by clicking on Run button or selecting Run from menubar and click on function name displayed there. Pretty cool isn’t it ? You can do lot more interesting stuff using Google Apps Script. Visit the reference link included earlier in this post to find out about all the API calls supported by Google Apps Script.