How to implement Websocket server using Twisted.

HTTP is a request-response type one way protocol. For the web application where continuous data is to be send, websocket was introduced. Unlike HTTP, websocket provides full duplex communication. Websocket, which can be said as an upgraded version of HTTP, is standardized to be used over TCP like HTTP. In this article I will share my experience in implementing websocket with twisted, a framework of python for internet. If you are familiar with websocket, then you can skip to twisted.web or else below is a little introduction to websocket.

WebSocket

To initiate communication using websocket, a Handshake need to be done between client and server. This procedure is backward compatible to HTTP’s request – response structure. First the client sends a handshake request to the server which looks like:

Sending Upgrade header in request with value websocket will acknowledge server about websocket communication. Now if server supports websocket with specified sub-protocols (Sec-WebSocket-Protocol) and version (Sec-WebSocket-Version), it will send adequate response . Possible response could be:

In response, server will send 101 Switching Protocols code and Sec-WebSocket-Accept whose value is calculated using Sec-WebSocket-Key. you can find more information here. After a successful handshake, any of the peer can send data to each other which must be encoded in binary format described in websocket RFC. A high-level overview of the framing is given in the following figure.

Twisted.web

websocket using twisted wire diagramAs in normal twisted.web server , at TCP level, we have HTTPChannel class (a child class of T.I.protocol.Protocol) and server.Site class (which is the child class of T.I.protocol.ServerFactory). Also a Resource instance needs to be passed to server.site class, so that it can serve GET request.

Whenever a data is received, DataReceived method of HTTPChannel is invoked. Now if data starts with ‘GET’, allow the HTTPChannel handle it, which will invoke the render function of the root resource provided to Site class. Render will set 101 response code and will compute the websocket response key. During handshake do not send any raw data, because if handshake is successful this will be considered as framed binary data. Even if you want to send, frame it and send.

If data doesn’t start with ‘GET’, that means we can assume it is a binary encoded message. Now this message can be decoded using Frame.py, which is a very simple data framing module following WebSocket specification. Data send to the client by server should be unmasked as per the websocket specification.

Below is code example of an echo websocket server.

 


How to install Asterisk on CentOS

In this installment of our How To, we are going to go over on the topic of how to install Asterisk on CentOS. For this we are going to use Asterisk 13 and CentOS 7 minimal version. But, instructions will mostly be similar to other versions of Asterisk and CentOS.

As a first step you need to download latest asterisk on to your machine. For this you need wget tool. As we are using minimal flavor of CentOS even wget tool is not available on fresh install. Run the following command to install wget.

Once, wget is installed successfully, run the following command to download asterisk.

Extract downloaded asterisk tar ball

Install the following dependencies

Once, all the above dependencies are installed. You can now run the following command to enable or disable modules of your choice.

After you are done with the menuselect screen, run the following command to compile and install asterisk

That’s it now you have asterisk installed successfully on your you machine. Run, the following command to start asterisk

Now, you should see asterisk console saying “Asterisk Ready”. Instead, if you encounter the following error

Don’t worry, just run the following command and start asterisk again after that.

 

How to install Asterisk 13 on Debian 8

In this post we are going to go over on how to install Asterisk 13 on Debian 8 from source. It’s pretty straight forward. Most of the commands shown below needs to be executed with root privileges. So, it’s better to login on console with root user account

First download latest Asterisk 13 version from Asterisk’s web site.

Extract downloaded tar ball

gcc comes installed on Debian 8. You need to install remaining dependencies using following commands

Once all the dependencies are installed. Run the following command

This is exit successfully without any errors. If there are any error like missing packages, you need to install them via apt-get. Before you compile Asterisk you have opportunity to enable or disable modules that you like by running following command

That command will bring up a console application as shown below, where you can navigate around using arrow keys of your keyboard and choose to enable or disable modules of your choice.

make-menuselect

Some of the modules in there depend on external packages. You need to install those dependencies in order enable those particular modules.

Now it’s time for compiling asterisk. Run the following command on console.

Once the above command runs with out error, you need to run the following command to install asterisk in system directories.

That’s it now you have asterisk installed on your machine. The following command should bring up asterisk console as shown below

asterisk-ready

Like it says Asterisk is now ready!